We understood why desalination is done, what is the basic process of desalination and which techniques or technologies are used to complete it. In this video, we will learn which techniques are used and what is the process of carrying out such methods and techniques.
Thermal desalination is a cost-intensive process that requires high energy consumption to complete. In contrast, solar desalination is comparatively more cost-effective and is typically used for very small-scale generation. It works on the basic principle of desalination, where heat energy is provided by the sun to evaporate water from saltwater. The water vapor then condenses and is collected in condensate troughs as freshwater. Whereas membrane desalination methods, such as reverse osmosis, which is mostly used in all applications; require energy to complete their mechanical processes.
Meaning of osmosis and osmotic pressure
Osmosis is a process in which molecules pass from low concentration to a solution of high concentration through a semipermeable membrane. The minimum amount of pressure required to carry out osmosis is known as osmotic pressure.
Meaning of reverse osmosis
Reverse osmosis is applying high pressure to water to pass through a semipermeable membrane leaving behind contaminants, minerals, or any substances and allowing small particles of water molecules to pass through it. Hence pure water is collected which is rightly known as RO water.
The process of reverse osmosis
In reverse osmosis water is forced to pass through a specially designed membrane at a higher pressure to remove compounds such as salt, viruses, or any kind of harmful microorganisms from water. The walls of membrane sheets consist of various layers made of polyamide, polysulfone, cellulose acetate, and polyester base layer. These layers are spirally bounded around a tube-like structure bundled together. As the water is fed at high pressure in vessels only small molecules of water are allowed to pass through it leaving behind large particles of contaminants present in the water. The rejected water moves to another stage for carrying out reverse osmosis and is recycled again for more output. It is observed that reverse osmosis is carried out repeatedly at many stages for producing the highest amount of RO water leaving behind less amount of wastewater. Such designs of plants produce the highest amount of RO water in a day.
Advantages of using reverse osmosis:
The advantages of using the reverse osmosis process are simple and reliable. It simply separates ionic salts but also non-ionic contaminants and harmful other organisms. Considering the cost of RO plants the installation cost is high but the maintenance cost is comparatively low. The membrane can also be easily replaced and hence can work smoothly.
All of the factors related to water treatment were discussed for designing the best adequate filtration system for treating water. We hope that these videos were helpful in understanding how the water treatment is done and how can we cater to needs to provide the right solution for the problem.
Overview of the topics discussed:
In conclusion, water treatment is an important process for ensuring that water is safe and clean for consumption. Reverse osmosis is a widely used method in many applications and is known for producing high-quality, pure water with fewer wastes. However, membranes are the most important part of the desalination process for which the right prefiltration system is needed. Right prefiltration systems if not designed can cause choking in the membranes. Also in order to minimize overall operational costs and extend the life of the membrane one can use the right prefiltration system which is our patented self-cleaning filters, basket filters, bag filters and cartridge filters.
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